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Part:
Chapter: Section: Term:
test
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2.2 wall
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section
 
    
2.2.1 wall material
It is variously composed of secreted organic matter (tectin), secreted minerals (calcite, aragonite or silica) or of agglutinated particles. The well accepted Loeblich&Tappan school views the wall material as the first criteria of classification
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
agglutinated
tests built from organic and mineral matter cemented together by an organic, calcareous or ferric oxide cement. The grains are commonly selected for size, texture and composition (e.g. spicules, gravel etc.) Agglutinated tests are characteristic for foraminifera of the class Astrorhizata based on the classifiaction of the Mikhalevich school.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
calcareous
refers to the wall material of the test build by calcite or aragonite. Calcareous tests are by far the most abundant. The main types are porcelaneous imperforate, hyaline perforate and microgranular.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
hyaline
refers to calcareous, perforate tests with a wall, through which light is able to pass. Such tests appear glassy in reflected and grey in transmitted light. The clarity is often obscured by thick walls, ornamentation, spines and alike. Hyaline tests allow the hosting of algal symbionts inside. The concept of constructing a greeenhouse and garden algae inside has led to genera with large tests of up to 15cm.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
porcelaneous
refers to calcareous, imperforate tests built of elongate cristals of magnesium calcite with an outer surface of horizontally arranged needles. They lack mural pores and are milky white in reflected light and amber in transmitted light. Porcelaneous tests are characteristic for foraminifera of the class Miliolata based on the classifiaction of the Mikhalevich school.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
2.2.2 perforation
perforations are pores in the wall of the test. In classification planktonic foraminifera are grouped into microperforate, finely perforated and macroperforate forms.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
finely perforate
The term is used in the classification of planktonic foraminifera, referring to perforations in the test. Forms with pore-diameters between 1µm - 3µm are called finely perforate. They are only visible at higher magnifications of 60+x. Definition and images from Petrizzo et al. 2011
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
macroperforate
The term is used in the classification of planktonic foraminifera, referring to perforations in the test. Forms with pore-diameters > 3µm are called macroperforate. They are visible at normal magnifications of 20x-40x. Definition and images from Petrizzo et al. 2011
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
microperforate
The term is used in the classification of planktonic foraminifera, referring to perforations in the test. Forms with pore-diameters < 1µm are called microperforate. The pores are only visible at higher magnifications of 60+x. Definition and images from Petrizzo et al. 2011.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
3.1 wall
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part biology  Chapter wall  Section
 
    
3.1.2 perforation
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part biology  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
pore
pores are small holes in the wall of the test. They are distinguished from the apertures. The pores do not form an open connection between the cell inside and the surrounding environment. Both are separated by an inner organic lining, allowing gas and solute exchange. Only small molecules and nutritional salts can penetrate via the perforation, serving the cell and symbionts inside the test. Rewritten from Boudagher-Fadel 2013.
 Part biology  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    


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