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Foraminifera.eu Glossary by Subject    by alphabet    contents only
created and filled by Brian Ottway, Michael Hesemann and Werner Baubkus.
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Part:
Chapter: Section: Term:
test
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2. systematics
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part systematics  Chapter   Section
 
    
2.1 introduction
The introduction to the the systematics will be elobarated in a far future
 Part systematics  Chapter introduction  Section
 
    
2.1.1 basic terms
In this section basic terms on systematics are described
 Part systematics  Chapter introduction  Section basic terms
 
    
test
The most important parts of the foraminiferid cell are enclosed within an inner shell called test. It is variously composed of secreted organic matter (tectin), secreted minerals (calcite, aragonite or silica) or of agglutinated particles. This test consists of a single (unilocular)chamber or multiple (multilocular) chambers mostly less than 1 mm across and each interconnected by one or several openings called foramen/foramina.
 Part systematics  Chapter introduction  Section basic terms
 
    
2.2 wall
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section
 
    
2.2.1 wall material
It is variously composed of secreted organic matter (tectin), secreted minerals (calcite, aragonite or silica) or of agglutinated particles. The well accepted Loeblich&Tappan school views the wall material as the first criteria of classification
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
agglutinated
tests built from organic and mineral matter cemented together by an organic, calcareous or ferric oxide cement. The grains are commonly selected for size, texture and composition (e.g. spicules, gravel etc.) Agglutinated tests are characteristic for foraminifera of the class Astrorhizata based on the classifiaction of the Mikhalevich school.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
calcareous
refers to the wall material of the test build by calcite or aragonite. Calcareous tests are by far the most abundant. The main types are porcelaneous imperforate, hyaline perforate and microgranular.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
hyaline
refers to calcareous, perforate tests with a wall, through which light is able to pass. Such tests appear glassy in reflected and grey in transmitted light. The clarity is often obscured by thick walls, ornamentation, spines and alike. Hyaline tests allow the hosting of algal symbionts inside. The concept of constructing a greeenhouse and garden algae inside has led to genera with large tests of up to 15cm.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
porcelaneous
refers to calcareous, imperforate tests built of elongate cristals of magnesium calcite with an outer surface of horizontally arranged needles. They lack mural pores and are milky white in reflected light and amber in transmitted light. Porcelaneous tests are characteristic for foraminifera of the class Miliolata based on the classifiaction of the Mikhalevich school.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section wall material
 
    
2.2.2 perforation
perforations are pores in the wall of the test. In classification planktonic foraminifera are grouped into microperforate, finely perforated and macroperforate forms.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
finely perforate
The term is used in the classification of planktonic foraminifera, referring to perforations in the test. Forms with pore-diameters between 1µm - 3µm are called finely perforate. They are only visible at higher magnifications of 60+x. Definition and images from Petrizzo et al. 2011
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
macroperforate
The term is used in the classification of planktonic foraminifera, referring to perforations in the test. Forms with pore-diameters > 3µm are called macroperforate. They are visible at normal magnifications of 20x-40x. Definition and images from Petrizzo et al. 2011
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
microperforate
The term is used in the classification of planktonic foraminifera, referring to perforations in the test. Forms with pore-diameters < 1µm are called microperforate. The pores are only visible at higher magnifications of 60+x. Definition and images from Petrizzo et al. 2011.
 Part systematics  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
2.3 chamber
The space and its enclosing biomineralized walls formed at one instar see also chamber lumen and chamberlet
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section
 
    
2.3.1 chamber arrangement
The pattern of disposition of chambers in a test
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
annular
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
biloculine
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
biserial
The chambers are arranged alternating in a two row serial
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
changing plane of coiling
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
coil
a complete turn of 360° for a spiral test
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
dextral coiling
in a trochospiral chamber arrangement the chambers are added to the right of the preceding ones. Place the specimen on the spiral side with the last chamber on top. Image from Schmidt et al. 2015. See also sinistral coiling.
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
distal
in the direction of growth, farthest away from the proloculus
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
lateral side
in a trochospiral chamber arrangement the side neither being the spiral nor the umbilical side. Image from Schmidt et al. 2015 .
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
miliolid
The test is build by tubular chambers which are coiled like a broken spiral. With an rotation angle of 180° this arrangement is called biloculine, with an angle of 120° triloculine and with an angle of 70° quinqueloculine (see figure). This chamber arrangement is the giving name for the suborder Miliolina
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
planispiral
The chambers are arranged in a plane spiral. In contrast to a trochospiral arrangement, there is no growth in the 3rd axis while new chambers are added during growth of the foraminifera.
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
quinqueloculine
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
single chambered
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
sinistral coiling
in a trochospiral chamber arrangement the chambers are added to the left of the preceding ones. Place the specimen on the spiral side with the last chamber on top. Image from Schmidt et al. 2015 . See also dextral coiling.
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
spiral side
in a trochospiral chamber arrangement the side opposite to the umbiliculus. Image from Schmidt et al. 2015 .
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
sutur
the contact line between two chambers or between two coils
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
triloculine
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
triserial
The chambers are arranged with 3 chambers per whorl, often trochospiral
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
trochospiral
The chambers are arranged in a three dimensional spiral. The chamber arrangement is in whorls or coils where the rate of translation (net rate of movement along the growth axis to the net rate of movement away from the axis) is more than zero. Spiral and umbilical sides are dissimilar.
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
tubular
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
umbilical side
in a trochospiral chamber arrangement the side with the umbiliculus. Image from Schmidt et al. 2015 .
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
umbiliculus
the inner, axial space of spiral shaped foraminifera
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
uniserial
The chambers of the multilocular test are arranged in one single linear series
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
whorl
synonym for coil
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber arrangement
 
    
2.3.2 chamber form
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
brick
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
circular, semicircular, cyclical
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
elongate
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
pyriform - oval
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
round and flat
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
spherical - globular
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
triangular to trapezoid
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
tubular
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
V-shaped
 Part systematics  Chapter chamber  Section chamber form
 
    
2.4 aperture
The opening in the last chamber of a foraminifera is called aperture. There may be one or several openings. Due to the various possible positions of the aperture and the multiple shapes of it, the aperture is a very relevant morphological criteria for the determination of a foraminifera.
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section
 
    
2.4.1 position of the aperture
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
aperture not visible
the aperture is not visible
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
areal (=within front wall)
the aperture is positioned in the distal wall, not on a suture
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
basal interiomarginal
the aperture is located at the sutur between primary and the preceeding chamber
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
extraumbilical
the aperture is in the primary chamber of a coiled shell, but not connected with the umbilicus
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
no primary, but multiple apertures
the aperture is build by two or more openings, may be not only in the primary chamber
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
terminal
aperture is located at the distal position of an tubular or elongated chamber
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
umbilical
the aperture is located in the umbilicus
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
umbilical-extraumbilical
the aperture is located on the interior margin of the primary chamber of a coiled shell and extends from the umbilicus to the periphery
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section position of the aperture
 
    
2.4.2 aperture form
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section aperture form
 
    
arcuate lunear arch
the aperture is formed like the lunear arch
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section aperture form
 
    
cribate
aperture is build by several openings giving the impression of a sieve
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section aperture form
 
    
oval - reniform
the aperture is oval or shaped like a kidney
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section aperture form
 
    
pores in rows
aperture is build by several openings arranged in rows
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section aperture form
 
    
radiate
the aperture is formed radiate
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section aperture form
 
    
round
the aperture is circular
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section aperture form
 
    
short slit and alike
the aperture is formed like (short) slit
 Part systematics  Chapter aperture  Section aperture form
 
    


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