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Part:
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3. biology
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part biology  Chapter   Section
 
    
3.1 wall
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part biology  Chapter wall  Section
 
    
3.1.2 perforation
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part biology  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
pore
pores are small holes in the wall of the test. They are distinguished from the apertures. The pores do not form an open connection between the cell inside and the surrounding environment. Both are separated by an inner organic lining, allowing gas and solute exchange. Only small molecules and nutritional salts can penetrate via the perforation, serving the cell and symbionts inside the test. Rewritten from Boudagher-Fadel 2013.
 Part biology  Chapter wall  Section perforation
 
    
3.2 nutrition
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part biology  Chapter nutrition  Section
 
    
3.2.1 symbiont
partner in a symbiosis
 Part biology  Chapter nutrition  Section symbiosis
 
    
symbiosis
a close and long-term interaction between different biological species. Symbiotic relationships are quite varied in forams and include algal symbiosis, chloroplast husbandry and bacterial endosymbiosis . The advantage of the well known algal symbiosis lies in the 3 mayor areas: 1) energy from photosynthesis; 2) enhancement of calcification and 3) removal of waste and metabolic chemicals. Rewritten from Gupta et al., 2002.
 Part biology  Chapter nutrition  Section symbiosis
 
    
3.3 ecology
will be described later / will be described later / will be described later / will be described later
 Part biology  Chapter ecology  Section
 
    
3.3.1 basic terms
In this section basic terms on ecology are described
 Part biology  Chapter ecology  Section basic terms
 
    
benthic foraminifera
They live on, in, or near the bottom of the ocean, also known as the benthic zone. They are capable to live in different habitats from tidal pools along the foreshore, out to the continental shelf, and then down to the abyssal depths. They may not be stationary but move around a little with their pseudopodia or have a planktonic phase in their life cycle. More than 5000 recent species are known in contrast to only about 40 in planktonics. This variability makes them a valuable indicator for present and past environments and their changes.
 Part biology  Chapter ecology  Section basic terms
 
    
planktonic foraminifera
Planktonic foraminifera live drifting in the open ocean and not nearshore. They are distributed worldwide. Planktonic forams are indicators of ocean currents and worldwide climate changes, as the species-distribution directly correlates with salinity and water-temperature. Planktonic foraminifera commonly live with photosynthetic symbionts. In modern oceans they are so common, that their tests - after death sinking to the ground - form thick sedimentary layers like the Globigerina ooze.
 Part biology  Chapter ecology  Section basic terms
 
    


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